|Why register .re?|
|Réunion is a region within the French Republic and an Indian Ocean island in East Africa, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius. Réunion is above a hotspot in the Earth's crust so it will come as no surprise that it is most famous for Piton de la Fournaise (literally meaning "Peak of the Furnace"), which is locally known as "le Volcano" (The Volcano). It is more than 500,000 years old and is one of the most active volcanos in the world. In fact, Reunion is often called Hawaii's sister because of the similarity of climate and volcanic nature. The Official TLD is .RE
This beautiful country is also home to mountains, calderas, waterfalls, and stunning beaches that go on for miles. The official language of Réunion is French, but the majority of the region's population speaks Réunion Creole.
If you conduct business from within Réunion, it is time to register a .re domain extension. Registering a dot 'RE' country code extension (top level domain name) will increase credibility for your business across the globe. Why? Country-code domains are meant specifically for businesses that do business within a particular country--in this case, Réunion. The .com domain (and other generic TLDs) are not targeted and that online space is saturated--and you likely already have the .com for your business.
Extend your brand presence with a more relevant, shorter domain--a ccTLD that differentiates you from competitors. Identify yourself as an official Réunionese business owner and give your clients and constituents more confidence as they interact with you online. Country code domains also help you rank higher in local search results.
The company has to be from a country that is part of the EU and provide the VAT number
The French Network Information Centre (referred to as AFNIC below), an association governed by the law of 1st July 1901, has the task of attributing and managing domain names within the naming zones corresponding to the national territory delegated to it.
The domain names administered by AFNIC are attributed in the public interest on the basis of published, non-discriminatory rules which insist, in particular, on the applicants' respect for intellectual property rights.
To this end, AFNIC has developed a set of rules relating to the registration and maintenance of the domain names that it administers in accordance with the decisions taken by its voting bodies and in close cooperation with its various constituent committees.
This set of rules together with the documents guiding their application constitute a single contractual document known as the "AFNIC naming charter".
Article 1 - Purpose
The purpose of the naming charter is to define the administrative and technical rules relating to the naming zones administered by AFNIC.
Article 2 - Applicability
By requesting the registration of or transmitting his domain name, the holder of a domain name, referred to as the "registrant", is considered to be aware of the terms of the present charter and to accept them without reservations.
The electronic validation or signature by the applicant of the request for action on the part of AFNIC together with the payment of any sums due in respect of the registration of a domain name or any other administrative operation may not be interpreted as anything other than a simple reaffirmation of this acceptance.
The applicable version of the AFNIC naming charter is the one available on the AFNIC site on the date a request for an administrative operation is received by AFNIC irrespective of the nature of the request.
Unless exceptionally agreed to the contrary by the Administrative Council, new rules take effect immediately and are not retroactive.
Article 3 - Domain categories
The naming zones delegated to AFNIC comprise:
the top-level domain .fr;
the second-level domains.
The top level domains category includes the naming conventions , which registrations are only allowed to the entities working in this sector.
The second-level domains are subdivided into:
descriptive second-level domains the purpose of which is to describe an activity or title irrespective of its nature:
.tm.fr for owners of trademarks;
.asso.fr for associations;
.nom.fr for surnames;
.prd.fr for research and development programs;
.presse.fr for press publications;
.com.fr open to all applicants without justification of the requested name.
sector-based second-level domains the aim of which is to identify a branch of activity or a regulated sector
AFNIC's voting bodies may, in cooperation with the consultative committees, agree to create or remove descriptive second-level domains.
A descriptive second-level domain may not be removed if domain names are still active within it without prior notification of 6 (six) months inviting the holders of names within the domain that is to be removed to change their domain names.
AFNIC will decide on the creation of a second-level sector-based domain when so requested by a competent authority.
The competent authority is responsible for eliminating a second-level sector-based domain as well as for the consequences of removal.
Article 4 - Holders of domain names in the .fr domain zone
The following may hold domain names in the .fr domain zone, that is to say top or second-level domain names, either as a result of registration or through the transmission of a domain name:
whose head office is in France; (or),
which possess an address in France which is expressly listed in the public electronic databases of the registrars of the commercial courts or the National Statistical and Economic Studies Institute (INSEE), (or),
State institutions or departments, local authorities or associated establishments, (or),
which own a trademark registered with the National Intellectual Property Institute or own a registered EU or international trademark which expressly includes French territory;
of French nationality; (or),
of foreign nationality who are domiciled in France; (or),
who own a trademark registered with the National Intellectual Property Institute or own a registered EU or international trademark which expressly includes French territory.
Article 5 - Administrative contact
When requesting registration, it is essential for the applicant to designate an "administrative contact" which must be maintained for the entire period of utilization of the domain name.
The registrant may designate an individual or a legal entity as the administrative contact and this person or entity may either be registrant or a third-party, in particular the Internet service provider.
The administrative contact must be based in France where they must possess an address where they can receive legal and other documents.
As far as legal entities are concerned, the term "based in France" refers to entities whose head office is located in France or which possess an address in France listed in the public electronic databases of the registrars of the commercial courts or the National Statistical and Economic Studies Institute (INSEE). In the case of natural persons, it refers to persons who can prove possession of an address in France for more than 3 (three) months in succession prior to the request for the administrative operation.
The coordinates of the administrative contact are published in the Whois database.
The registrant is free to change their administrative contact via their Internet service provider.
Under no circumstances can AFNIC be held responsible for the relations, whatever their nature, between the registrant and the administrative contact.
The administrative contact is the natural person or legal entity who responds to AFNIC's queries except in the case of procedures undertaken in order to resolve disputes which are dealt with in direct contact with the registrant.
Article 6 - Accessibility
It is essential that AFNIC be able to contact either the registrant or the corresponding administrative contact as required.
To this end, both the registrant and the corresponding administrative contact must give a telephone number and e-mail address to AFNIC and keep them working.
Failure to respect this obligation will result in the blocking and, if necessary, the removal of the domain name.
Only the administrative contact's e-mail address is published in the Whois database in case of a registration where a restricted area is available.
Article 7 - Updating information
During the entire period of maintenance of the domain name, the registrant is responsible, via their Internet service provider, for updating without delay the information communicated on registration or transmission of the domain name.
Article 8 - Right to domain names
The registrant has the right to use the domain name for the entire period during which the registration is valid.
The domain name is available to them in accordance with the terms of the naming charter.
The registration, use and operation of a domain name are the sole responsibility of the registrant.
AFNIC possesses the right to withdraw a domain name as well as a pre-emptive right, in particular in the case of terms which have to be entered in the list of basic non-attributable terms. The right of withdrawal is subject to prior notification of 6 (six) months, which may be reduced to 3 (three) months on presentation of urgent reasons, in order to allow the registrant to choose a new domain name and migrate to the new domain name without difficulty.
The task undertaken by AFNIC confers on it no intellectual property rights in respect of domain names.
Article 9 - Validity of domain names
The domain name is valid for a period of 12 (twelve) months as of the date of the final operation invoiced to the service provider and is tacitly renewable in the absence of a request for removal addressed by the Internet service provider.
Article 10 - Registration of a top-level domain name and the principle of identification
Persons and entities identifiable via one of the three following public electronic databases may register a top-level (.fr) domain name:
registrars of the commercial courts;
National Intellectual Property Institute (INPI);
National Statistics and Economic Studies Institute (INSEE).
The technical setup of the domain name is accomplished on the day the request is processed by AFNIC.
AFNIC will then verify the identification information submitted by the applicant within a period of 30 (thirty) days following the issue of an "identification" ticket.
If verification has not been performed successfully by the end of this period, AFNIC will address a request for further information to the Internet service provider.
Within a period of 30 (thirty) days following the transmission of this request, the Internet service provider must then communicate all the information and documentation requested by AFNIC in order to permit identification of the applicant from the data quoted above.
When the identification begins, for the domain names registered under mairie-xxx.fr, ville-xxx.fr, cr-xxx.fr, cg-xxx.fr, Afnic also checks the adequacy between the name of the holder and the name of the territorial community concerned.
If no response is received within this period of 30 (thirty) days, the domain name is blocked for a further period of 30 (thirty) days, during which period the Internet service provider must respond to AFNIC's request.
If no response permitting AFNIC to identify the applicant is received on the expiry of this new deadline, the domain name is removed and becomes available to new applicants.
The registration operation is nevertheless invoiced by AFNIC.
AFNIC cannot be held responsible for any errors or omissions in the above-mentioned public databases that might affect the correct conduct of the registration process.
Article 11 - Registration of a second-level domain name and the principle of justification
No request for registration or any other administrative operation relating to a second-level domain will be accepted unless the applicant or holder is able to prove their membership of the category in accordance with the terms of the present naming charter. This requirement does not apply to the .com.fr domain.
The appropriate supporting documents must be sent to AFNIC at the time of the registration application and verification will be performed before the domain name is set up.
The registration of a top-level domain name is in no way constraining for natural persons or legal entities who may also register second-level domain names providing that they observe the applicable requirements.
Article 12 - Specific rules applicable to the second-level descriptive domain .tm.fr
The extension .tm.fr is reserved for registrants of trademarks who want to use their trademark as registered or a part of their "trademark field" as a domain name.
AFNIC accepts the following supporting documentation:
the registration application validated by INPI (National Industrial Property Institute); the definitive OHIM or WIPO certificate providing that France is one of the countries listed in the application.
The following applies to domain names terminating with .fr that are created on the basis of a registration application validated by INPI:
if the trademark registration application addressed to INPI is rejected during the acceptability inspection and does not obtain "deposited" status, the domain name is simply removed by AFNIC without notification or compensation. AFNIC will inform the Internet service provider of this action. The domain name then becomes available again for other applicants;
if the trademark is not published in the BOPI (Official Industrial Property Bulletin) during the INPI regulatory period of 6 (six) weeks and does not obtain the "published" status, AFNIC blocks the domain name for a period of 30 (thirty) days. If the situation is not regularised or no further information is submitted, the domain name is removed without notification or compensation. The Internet service provider is again informed of this action;
if the trademark is not registered during the INPI regulatory period of 6 (six) months and does not obtain the "registered" status, AFNIC blocks the domain name for a period of 30 (thirty) days. If the situation is not regularised or no further information is submitted, the domain name is removed without notification or compensation. The Internet service provider is again informed of this action;
Article 13 - Specific rules applicable to the second-level descriptive domain .asso.fr
The extension .asso.fr is reserved for associations.
AFNIC accepts the following supporting documentation:
copy of publication in the Official Journal;
copy of the declaration to the Prefecture (or other depending on local regulations);
copy of the identifier in the INSEE directory.
The domain name must correspond to all or part of the name of association or its denomination as it appears on the supporting document.
Article 14 - Specific rules applicable to the second-level descriptive domain .nom.fr
The extension .nom.fr is reserved for natural persons who want to use their surname as a domain name.
AFNIC accepts the following supporting documentation:
in the case of French nationals: copy of identity card or passport;
in the case of foreign nationals based in France: identity documents (passport or identity card) and proof of residence less than three months old (EDF - GDF - telephone bill).
This extension has the following syntax: [surname.nom.fr] or [surname-freefield.nom.fr].
The surname may be a family name, maiden name or alias as it appears on the applicant's identity document.
Article 15 - Specific rules applicable to the second-level descriptive domain .com.fr
No proof of name is required for registration under the extension .com.fr.
Registration is permitted only if the identical term is not already registered under one of the public domain extensions.
Registration under the extension .com.fr does not prevent the applicant from subsequently registering the same term under one of the public domain extensions.
Article 16 - Specific rules applicable to the second-level descriptive domain .prd .fr
The extension .prd.fr is reserved for research and development projects or programmes and must be supported by a document testifying to the genuine nature of the said project or programme and must correspond to the title of the said project or programme.
Article 17 - Specific rules applicable to the second-level descriptive domain .presse.fr
The extension .presse.fr is reserved for press publications and must be supported by a copy of the ISSN document from the National Library. The selected domain name must correspond to the keyword in the ISSN document.
Article 18 - Specific rules applicable to the second-level sector-based domain
The second-level sector-based domains are subject to specific rules determined, drawn up and implemented by a competent authority.
These rules can be obtained from the competent authorities listed here.
AFNIC performs a prior check of applications for the registration of second-level sector-based domain names. A domain name cannot be registered or transmitted unless the application is compatible with the corresponding naming rules.
AFNIC will block and, if necessary, remove a domain name if the competent authority responsible for the sector-based domain in question requests it to do so. In this case, any consequences are assumed by the competent authority alone and no responsibility will be assumed by AFNIC.
Article 19 - Choice of domain name
The applicant is free to choose the term or terms that they want to use in the domain name.
However, AFNIC will not agree to register a domain name including terms: which are present in the list of prohibited terms (see article 20) , which do not conform to the syntactic constraints (see article 21).
The applicant is solely responsible for the terms they choose to use in his domain name.
The applicant is solely responsible for ensuring that the terms they wish to use in their domain name, among other things,
1)do not infringe third-party rights, in particular:
rights to intellectual property (copyright and/or patent rights),
the rules of competition and fair behaviour in business matters,
the rights to a person's name, first name or alias,
2) are not contrary to decency and public order and, in particular, do not include any term:
prohibited by the law of 29 July 1881 on the freedom of the press;
likely to be detrimental to the physical, mental or moral development of minors.
Neither AFNIC nor the Internet service providers are able to perform a prior check of the appropriateness or legality of this choice or to check the legality or the conformity of the items submitted by the applicant as the basis for the registration application or application for any other administrative operation (K Bis extract, receipt from INPI or the prefecture, etc.).
AFNIC does not perform any search to determine the existence of prior claims to domain names but nevertheless remains responsible for the correct application of the naming charter. It therefore reserves the right to request supplementary information or additional guarantees concerning domain names and the legitimacy of applications.
This provision in no way represents an obligation of supervision or vigilance on the part of AFNIC but instead is to be considered as an option which may be mobilized in exceptional cases.
Article 20 - Prohibited terms
AFNIC keeps an up-to-date list of the basic terms containing terms for which names cannot be attributed due to their nature (such as insulting, racist or obscene terms or terms relating to crimes or infractions), technical Internet terms, the names of regulated professions, terms relating to State functioning, the names of the countries that have signed the Paris Convention or terms used for international organizations.
AFNIC may either include terms as it sees fit or in response to analysis application for the registration of a domain name.
The government may, via the Minister for Telecommunications, request AFNIC to include new terms in this list of basic terms at any time.
This list is subject to change and applicants are invited to consult it on-line. Because of the terms it contains, the list is not published in full and is communicated only to Internet service providers who may request it if a registration application is rejected.
For AFNIC, the list of basic terms does not constitute a duty of result.
Any dispute regarding a refusal to register a domain name that contains a term present in the list of basic terms must be addressed to AFNIC's Administrative Council which is alone authorized to grant justified waivers. Any such requests must be accompanied by supporting arguments.
Article 21 - Syntactic constraints
Alphanumeric terms consisting of the French characters A to Z, the digits 0 to 9 and the hyphen "-" are accepted as domain names.
Domain names cannot be registered if they:
consist of a single character;
consist only of two letters;
start or end with a hyphen "-";
are longer than 255 characters (63 between each ".");
start with "xn--".
Article 22 - Processing of administrative operations
Applications submitted to AFNIC are processed in chronological order on the basis of the date of reception of the applications.
The processing of all administrative operations is based on the "first come, first served" principle.
For technical reasons, no administrative operation relating to a domain name may be addressed directly to AFNIC.
Requests for administrative operations must be processed by the Internet service provider who acts as the interface between the applicant or registrant and AFNIC.
Any natural person or legal entity wishing to register a domain name or implement a modification of whatever nature must choose an Internet service provider from the list of service providers maintained by AFNIC.
For each request, the Internet service provider must:
provide AFNIC with the items necessary for the identification of the applicant or the registrant; send to AFNIC, by fax or post, the documents supporting applications relating to second-level domain names in cases where such supporting documents are required.
Article 23 - Preregistrations
It is not possible to reserve a domain name whatever the type or reason for the request.
However, certain authorized organizations, a list of which is available here, offer a preregistration procedure.
The preregistration procedure that is set out and implemented by the said organizations makes it possible to preregister a domain name, that is to say block it for a period of 15 (fifteen) days, during which period the registrant must choose an Internet service provider to finalize the registration application.
If this deadline expires without the registrant completing registration of the domain name, the name becomes available to other applicants once more.
Article 24 - Periodic checks
AFNIC may decide that it is necessary to verify:
the conformity to the terms of the charter of registered domain names;
the documentary information identifying the holder of a domain name.
In the event of such a check, AFNIC may request the Internet service provider to supply additional information or documentation, and in particular:
the standard AFNIC activity request; (or), any document containing references to the standard AFNIC activity request.
The Internet service provider then possesses a period of 30 (thirty) days to reply to AFNIC's request.
If no response is received, the domain name will be blocked for a further period of 30 (30) days and then removed if no response is received to AFNIC's request by the end of this extension period.
In case of an operation of change of provider , AFNIC can be asked by former Internet service provider to check the reality of this request from the holder of the domain name. This checking is begins when an e-mail is sent by the former Internet service provider to firstname.lastname@example.org (cf. procedural guide).
Article 25 - Relations between the registrant and the service provider
Due to the principles underlying its activity, AFNIC has no legal connection with the applicant or the registrant.
Under no circumstances can AFNIC be held responsible for the relations, whatever their nature, between the Internet service provider and its customers (applicant or registrant).
In addition, AFNIC cannot be held responsible either for the list of Internet service providers or for their technical capabilities.
Article 26 - Orphaned domain names
If an Internet service provider should cease to be recognized by AFNIC for whatever reason and, more specifically, due to:
non-renewal of its annual agreement with AFNIC;
collective insolvency procedures;
cessation of activity in the domain in question;
cancellation of the agreement with AFNIC for whatever reason;
the domain names administered by the Internet service provider in question will be considered to be "orphaned domain names" and their holders will have to choose a new Internet service provider.
It is the Internet service provider's responsibility to give the affected holders among its customers prior notification of this state of affairs.
If the Internet service provider fails in this obligation, AFNIC will notify the holder's administrative contact by e-mail of the need to change Internet service provider.
The holder of the domain name possesses a period of 30 (thirty) days following the sending of the e-mail to undertake this task.
On expiry of this deadline, the domain name will be blocked for a further period of 30 (thirty) days and then, if the holder has still not chosen a new Internet service provider, the domain name will be removed without notification or compensation.
Article 27 - Change of Internet service provider
The registrant can change Internet service provider providing they respect their contractual obligations vis-à-vis the said Internet service provider.
They must choose a new Internet service provider and instruct the latter to make the necessary modifications.
The new Internet service provider must ensure that this technical change in no way affects the title to the domain name.
When AFNIC receives a request for a change of Internet service provider, it informs the former Internet service provider. Once informed, the Internet service provider has 15 (fifteen) days in which to challenge the instruction.
If the Internet service provider does not challenge this request to change provider within this period or if the Internet service provider gives its agreement, the change of provider is implemented within a period of 15 (fifteen) days.
If, within this period, the Internet service provider challenges the request to change provider then the procedure is suspended for a maximum of 6 (six) weeks.
The provider may agree to the request to change provider at any time during the 15 (fifteen) day period set out above.
Article 28 - Technical and/or administrative modifications
Administrative modifications consist in modifying administrative information with the exception of the registrant and the items relating to their identification.
Technical modifications consist of modifying the DNS servers on which the domain name is installed without this affecting the Internet service provider.
Article 29 - Invoicing relating to a domain name
The right to use a domain name is dependent on the payment of:
the cost of creation;
the cost of annual maintenance for each calendar year;
the costs relating to AFNIC's activities.
All activities performed by AFNIC will be invoiced as administrative operations with the exception of:
technical and administrative modifications;
the registration of a new domain name demanded by AFNIC either following its use of its right to withdraw a domain name or as a result of the removal of a second-level descriptive domain;
requests for removal.
However, it should be remembered that the cost of any registration that results in the removal of a domain name due to inadequate identification remains payable to AFNIC.
The costs of AFNIC activities as invoiced to the Internet service providers are fixed by AFNIC's Administrative Council for each calendar year.
These costs are public and accessible here.
The Internet service providers are free to set their own tariff levels.
Invoices are sent to and paid by the Internet service provider.
Costs relating to registration are payable to AFNIC as of the technical setup of the domain name.
The cost of the annual maintenance fee is payable to AFNIC one year after the last fee-paying administrative operation relating to the domain name.
The cost of an administrative operation is payable to AFNIC as of its completion.
AFNIC cannot be held responsible for failures to pay for its activities on the part of Internet service providers which may have an effect on the administration of the domain name. Any contestations or disputes arising from such matters fall exclusively within the framework of the relations between the Internet service provider and its customer.
Article 30 - Confidentiality
All the information held by AFNIC, with the exception of information accessible via the Whois database, is considered to be confidential.
AFNIC will not disclose any information that is not published in the Whois database unless requested so to do via legal channels or within the framework of the implementation of an alternative procedure for the resolution of disputes. Within the framework of the implementation of an alternative procedure for the resolution of disputes, AFNIC will supply the body to which the dispute has been submitted or the person designated by it with all the information in its possession and, in particular, information relating to the contested domain name and, if possible, a list of the domain names registered by the holder who is the subject of the procedure.
Article 31 - Domain name reference database
AFNIC is responsible for managing and maintaining the domain name reference database for the zones entrusted to it.
AFNIC defines the technical conditions for the operation of this database and the associated services, in particular the DNS Service and the Whois Service.
However, it cannot be held responsible for any technical problems relating to the functioning of the Internet itself or to the possible suspension of service resulting from incidents beyond its control or from maintenance operations.
Article 32 - Personal data
The Whois database has been declared to the National Commission for Informatics and Freedom.
The duly identified registrant has the right to access the information relating to them.
They also have the right to request corrections via his Internet service provider who may request an administrative change at any time. AFNIC does not issue any invoices in respect of such operations.
To be of value, the Whois database requires that all information relating to registrants, whether natural persons or legal entities, and their administrative and technical contacts must be published on-line and available to all.
Holders of domain names under .nom.fr may avail themselves of the "Restricted Publication" option.
When this option is selected, no personal information (name, address, telephone number, fax number and e-mail address if appropriate) is published on-line in the Whois database. Instead, only technical information is listed (technical contact - name and address of the Internet service provider and the DNS servers). However, the information must be communicated to AFNIC in the event of a corresponding judicial decision and/or the implementation of an alternative procedure for the resolution of disputes.
Article 33 - Responsibility
The applicant is solely responsible for the accuracy and completeness of the information he communicates to the Internet service provider. They are required to respect the rights of others and, in particular, intellectual property rights. To this end, they are expressly invited to perform the necessary checks and search for prior claims to domain names before proceeding with the registration of a domain name.
The Internet service provider is solely responsible for the appropriate technical processing of the request for an administrative operation by AFNIC and, in particular, for the data it records in its computer systems and its correct forwarding to AFNIC.
The Internet service provider will, when so requested by AFNIC, provide AFNIC with all the information relating to the request for an administrative operation.
AFNIC has the task of attributing domain names in the public interest on the basis of non-discriminatory, published rules.
As far as the technical database and Whois database are concerned, AFNIC is obliged to make available the appropriate resources and cannot be held responsible for errors, omissions, access failures, modifications or removals due to events beyond its control, unforeseeable circumstances, fraud or due to the reception of incorrect information.
Article 34 - Guarantee
The registrant guarantees AFNIC against any action, complaint, claim or challenge on the part of any person invoking a right, of whatsoever nature, in respect of a domain name, or due to the consequences of a registration or transmission operation.
In consequence, the registrant will be responsible for the payment of any compensation or interest imposed on AFNIC as the result of a dispute, preliminary hearings or any other proceedings, including the costs resulting from the defence of its interests inclusive of lawyers' fees.
They will also be responsible for the cost to AFNIC of implementing the corresponding judicial decision or settlement.
Article 35 - Freezing of operations
A domain name may be subject to the freezing of operations:
in the event of a judicial decision ordering the freezing of operations. This decision may be immediately enforceable or possess the full force of law as detailed in the article relating to the forced transmission of a domain name;
as soon as an alternative procedure for the resolution of disputes is undertaken.
The freezing of operations results in the cancellation of all operations currently being processed by AFNIC together with the corresponding tickets. The Internet service provider is informed of this by AFNIC.
Operations are unfrozen on termination of the legal proceedings or the alternative procedure for the resolution of disputes.
Domain names for which operations have been frozen are identified by the entry "CONTESTATION" in the Whois database.
Article 36 - Blocking of a domain name
AFNIC will block a domain name whenever it identifies an infringement of the terms or the spirit of the present charter and in particular, but not exclusively, in the event of the following:
if verification is unsuccessful;
if no response is received from the administrative contact;
if the e-mail address of the administrative contact and/or the registrant are not working;
if the domain name is orphaned (see article 26);
in the event of a judicial decision ordering the blocking of the domain name. This decision may be immediately enforceable or possess the full force of law as detailed in the article relating to the forced transmission of a domain name.
Domain names that have been blocked are identified by the entry "INACTIF" in the Whois database.
Article 37 - Removal of a domain name
For technical reasons, this request is irreversible.
Once removed, the domain name becomes available again and can be registered by a new applicant.
A domain name can be removed at the holder's request, submitted to AFNIC via the holder's Internet service provider. No justification is requested.
A domain name may be removed if no response is received to the corresponding request following a blocking period of 30 (thirty) days.
In the event of an emergency, a domain name may be removed without prior notification if so decided by AFNIC's Administrative Council.
A domain name may be removed following a judicial decision or within the framework of an alternative procedure for the resolution of disputes.
Article 38 - Alternative procedures for the resolution of disputes
The registrant undertakes to participate in the alternative procedures for the resolution of disputes relating to domain names subject to the conditions defined in the corresponding regulations that are accessible here.
It is important to state that AFNIC will not intervene in any way whatsoever in any of the implemented procedures and cannot be held responsible either for the actions of the specified bodies or for the decisions made by them.
These procedures relate exclusively to disputes between a registrant and a third party concerning the registration of domain names and under no circumstances to disputes concerning AFNIC's liability or that of any Internet service provider.
For its part, AFNIC undertakes to apply the decisions resulting from the alternative procedures for the resolution of disputes within the specified period.
Contrary to the principle of non-retroactivity, the application of decisions resulting from alternative procedures for the resolution of disputes apply to all already registered domain names.
Article 39 - Voluntary transmission of domain names
Domain names may be transferred subject to respect for the terms of the naming charter and, in particular, the requirements relating to identification which in such cases are subject to a preliminary check by AFNIC.
No voluntary domain name transmission operation will be validated by AFNIC unless the new holder is able to provide proof of acceptance by the holder.
This acceptance takes the form of the former holder's signature of the standard AFNIC acceptance letter that is available here (for members only).
In the event of compulsory liquidation or any other collective insolvency procedure, the letter of acceptance must be signed by the designated administrator.
Article 40 - Forced transmission of a domain name
AFNIC will undertake the forced transmission of domain names following:
decisions made within the framework of an alternative procedure for the resolution of disputes;
a judicial decision, under the following conditions:
Following a bailiff's notification to AFNIC by the most diligent party of an immediately enforceable judicial decision in application of article 514 of the new Civil Procedure Code together with proof that the party has been informed of the decision;
Following a bailiff's notification to AFNIC by the most diligent party of an immediately enforceable judicial decision in application of article 515 of the new Civil Procedure Code, with proof that the party has been informed of the decision and on presentation of proof of any surety settlement ordered by the judge in application of article 517 of the new Civil Procedure Code;
Following a bailiff's notification to AFNIC by the most diligent party of a judicial decision possessing the force of law within the meaning of article 500 of the new Civil Procedure Code, for which proof will be provided. Depending on the circumstances, this proof may, for example, consist of the submission of a certificate of no appeal or of notification of the appeal judgement.
If a judicial decision or a decision resulting from an alternative procedure for the resolution of disputes is reversed, AFNIC will implement the newly instructed administrative operations under the same conditions.
AFNIC is not able to act on requests that do not respect these conditions and, due to the position of strict neutrality to which it is committed, cannot be bound by the dispatch of letters, summons or copies of writs.
The administrative operations undertaken by AFNIC in the application of judicial decisions cannot under any circumstances be interpreted as an acceptance of responsibility and the applicant guarantees AFNIC against any recourse.
In all cases, the applicant must comply with the requirements of the charter within a period of 30 (thirty) days following transmission of the domain name. On expiry of this deadline, the domain name will be blocked for a further period of 30 (thirty) days after which, if the applicant has failed to comply with the terms of the charter, the domain name will be removed.
The technical and administrative costs of forced transmission are the responsibility of the applicant who may attempt to recover them from the former holder.
Article 41 - Agreement on proof
It is agreed that e-mails sent by AFNIC to service providers and/or the registrants act as proof.
The same applies to the "tickets" exchanged between the service provider and AFNIC concerning the processing of a file.
In the event of a dispute concerning the date of reception and/or processing of an application, the information on AFNIC's servers will be considered authentic.
Article 42 - Modification of the charter
As the result of deliberations, studies and agreements between the various members and partners, the AFNIC naming charter is subject to change.
Any new provisions will first be published on the AFNIC site and will be communicated directly to the Internet service providers whose responsibility it then is to notify the registrants of the said modifications.
"IP address" - "Internet Protocol Address", also referred to as "Internet Address" - Unique address making it possible to identify a resource (computer, router etc.) on the Internet. This address consists of a sequence of digits.
"Administrative operation" - Generic term comprising all the administrative or technical operations performed by AFNIC with reference to a domain name.
"Blocking" - Operation consisting of removing the domain name from the DNS service and making it inoperative. The domain name nevertheless continues to be present in the Whois database and continues to belong to the registrant. The blocked domain name cannot therefore be registered by a third party.
"Applicant" - Natural person or legal entity requesting the registration of one or more domain names or their transmission via an Internet service provider.
"DNS" - Domain Name System (or Service). Distributed database that makes it possible to register Internet resources (computer, router, etc) in the form of a domain name (e.g: afnic.fr) and associate this with an IP address. The Internet Protocol thus ensures conversion between the domain names and the IP addresses of the machines connected to the Internet. Without the DNS, it would be necessary to remember site addresses or e-mail addresses in the form of the domain's IP address (i.e. as a sequence of digits. For example: email@example.com).
"Pre-emptive right" - The pre-emptive right consists in integrating a domain name into the list of basic terms on reception of a registration application and thus of preventing the registration of the said name.
"Right of withdrawal" - The right of withdrawal consists in withdrawing a held domain name from a registrant for valid reasons and without compensation.
"Freezing of operations" - Operation consisting in preventing any modification with regard to a domain name with the exception of its removal. This operation does not change the functioning of the domain name (access to the site, e-mail addresses, renewal etc.).
"Procedure guide" - Document detailing all the technical items relating to the conduct of administrative operations for domain names.
"Technical modification" - Operation consisting in modifying the technical parameters relating to DNS servers.
"Administrative modification" - Operation consisting in modifying the administrative items (address, telephone number, fax, e-mail address, name of the administrative contact).
"Naming" - Policy for the attribution of domain names that varies as a function of the bodies authorized to manage Internet namespaces (.fr: AFNIC, .uk: Nominet, .com: Verisign, etc.).
"Domain name" - Alphanumeric term consisting of a root and an extension.
"Orphaned domain name" - Name of a correctly registered domain name which is no longer maintained by an Internet service provider.
"Internet service provider" - Provider of technical services that has signed an agreement with AFNIC and which is responsible for processing its customers' requests (its customers being applicants or registrants). The list of Internet service providers is available here (providing that the Internet service provider has agreed to appear in the list);
"DNS server" - Alternatively, Name Server (NS). Server used to host one or multiple domain names. There are two types of domain name server: primary server and secondary server.
"Removal" - Operation consisting in removing the name from the DNS service and the Whois database with the result that the domain name, which is no longer working, becomes available again and can be registered by a new registrant.
"Ticket" - Electronic message making it possible to follow the progress of an administrative operation undertaken by AFNIC.
"Holder" - Alternatively Registrant. Natural person or legal entity who has registered or is maintaining one or more domain names.
"Transmission" - Technical and administrative operation performed by AFNIC consisting in transferring a domain name from one registrant to another.
"Unsuccessful check" - Check conducted by AFNIC that does not make it possible to identify the registrant, in particular in cases where the communicated information is not present in the public databases or when this information differs from the communicated data or when these databases are inaccessible for whatever reason.
"Whois" - Contraction of "who is?". Service making it possible to search the registration databases in order to obtain information concerning a domain name or IP address. These public reference databases publish the physical contacts associated with the domain name or IP address (administrative contact, technical contact and, possibly, billing contact). Although not essential for the operation of the Internet as such, the administrative database "Whois" is, in practical terms, available for all extensions. The way it is managed and the formats used differ greatly from case to case. It makes it possible to locate and contact the persons responsible for a domain name or address if required, in particular in the case of disputes.
"Naming zone" - Set consisting of a top-level document and one or more second-level domains.
The forbidden terms are the terms that can not be registered.
These terms are divided in 3 categories:
Terms concerning public order and good manners;
Terms concerning Internet operations;
Terms of international organisations who have signed Paris Convention Treaty.
These terms will not be delegated under .fr, .com.fr, .asso.fr, .presse.fr or .prd.fr. Thow, they might be delegated under the only .gouv.fr, .nom.fr and .tm.fr zone, under justification.
Synonyms and terms with ethymologic similarities will also be refused.
It is reminded that this list may evolve because of any decision from the Board of Directors, of the autorities' decision or because of the evolution of Internet or the reglementation.
According to the naming charter, any term can become a foundamental term at after any administrative act or even autorativly and be pre-empted or recovered by AFNIC without any compensation and withing a sufficient delay to assume its migration.
The opposable list of forbidden terms is the one available on AFNIC web site on the day it receive the administrative act sent by the registrar.
AFNIC reminds you that this online list does not include all forbidden terms because some of them would be shocking or awkard.
Because of this, AFNIC can send to these members only the complete liste of forbidden terms after receiving a written demand
Non-exhaustive list of forbidden terms
The following list is updated in real time and terms are ordered by context:
afrique-du-sud, afrique-dusud, afriquedu-sud, afriquedusud, albanie, algerie, allemagne, angleterre, antigua, argentine, armenie, australie, autriche, azerbaidjan, bahamas, bahrein, bangladesh, barbade, belarus, belgique, belize, benin, bolivie, bosnie-herzegovine, bosnieherzegovine, botswana, bresil, bulgarie, burkina-faso, burkinafaso, burundi, cambodge, cameroun, canada, centrafique, chili, chine, chypre, colombie, congo, coree, coree-du-nord, coree-du-sud, coree-dunord, coree-dusud, coreedu-nord, coreedu-sud, coreedunord, coreedusud, costa-rica, costarica, cote-d-ivoire, cote-divoire, coted-ivoire, cotedivoire, coteivoire, croatie, cuba, danemark, dominique, egypte, el-salvador, elsalvador, emirats-arabes-unis, emirats-arabesunis, emiratsarabes-unis, emiratsarabesunis, equateur, espagne, estonie, etats-unis, etats-unis-d-amerique, etatsunis, federation-de-russie, federation-derussie, federationde-russie, federationderussie, finlande, france, gabon, gambie, georgie, ghana, grande-bretagne, grandebretagne, grece, grenade, grenadines, guatemala, guinee, guinee-bissau, guinee-equatoriale, guineebissau, guineeequatoriale, guyana, haiti, hollande, honduras, hongrie, inde, indonesie, iran, iraq, irlande, islande, israel, italie, jamahiriya-arabe-libyenne, jamaique, japon, jordanie, kazakhstan, kenya, kirghizistan, laos, lesotho, lettonie, liban, liberia, libye, liechtenstein, lituanie, luxembourg, madagascar, malaisie, malawi, mali, malte, maroc, maurice, mauritanie, mexique, monaco, mongolie, mozambique, nevis, nicaragua, niger, nigeria, norvege, nouvelle-guinee, nouvelle-zelande, nouvelleguinee, nouvellezelande, oman, ouganda, ouzbekistan, panama, papouasie-nouvelle-guinee, papouasie-nouvelleguinee, papouasienouvelle-guinee, papouasienouvelleguinee, paraguay, pays-bas, paysbas, perou, philippines, pologne, portugal, republique-arabe-syrienne, republique-arabesyrienne, republique-centrafricaine, republique-de-coree, republique-de-moldova, republique-decoree, republique-democratique-du-congo, republique-democratique-ducongo, republique-democratique-populaire-laos, republique-dominicaine, republique-islamique-d-iran, republique-populaire-democratique-de-coree, republique-tcheque, republique-unie-de-tanzanie, republique-yougoslave-de-macedoine, republique-yougoslave-demacedoine, republique-yougoslavede-macedoine, republiquearabe-syrienne, republiquearabesyrienne, republiquecentrafricaine, republiquede-coree, republiquede-moldova, republiquedecoree, republiquedemocratique-du-congo, republiquedemocratiqueducongo, republiquedemoldova, republiquedominicaine, republiquetcheque, republiqueyougoslave-de-macedoine, republiqueyougoslavede-macedoine, republiqueyougoslavedemacedoine, roumanie, royaume-uni, royaumeuni, rwanda, saint-kitts, saint-kitts-et-nevis, saint-marin, saint-siege, saint-vincent-et-les-grenadines, sainte-lucie, saintelucie, saintkittnevis, saintkitts, saintkitts-et-nevis, saintkittsetnevis, saintmarin, saintsiege, salvador, sao-tome-et-principe, sao-tome-principe, saotome-et-principe, saotome-principe, saotomeetetprincipe, saotomeprincipe, senegal, sierra-leone, sierraleone, singapour, slovaquie, slovenie, soudan, sri-lanka, srilanka, suede, suisse, suriname, swaziland, syrie, tadjikistan, tanzanie, tchad, togo, trinite-et-tobago, trinite-ettobago, triniteet-tobago, triniteettobago, tunisie, turkmenistan, turquie, ukraine, uruguay, usa, vatican, venezuela, viet-nam, vietnam, yougoslavie, zambie, zimbabwe
abus-de-pouvoir, abusdepouvoir, antisemite, antisemites, antisemitisme, antisemitismes, arme, armes, aryen, atrocite, atrocites, barbarie, barbaries, barbarisme, barbarismes, bombardement, bombardements, bombe, bombes, camp-de-concentration, camp-de-concentrations, camp-deconcentration, camp-deconcentrations, campde-concentration, campde-concentrations, campdeconcentration, campdeconcentrations, camps-de-concentration, camps-de-concentrations, camps-deconcentration, camps-deconcentrations, campsde-concentration, campsde-concentrations, campsdeconcentration, campsdeconcentrations, carabine, carabines, carnage, carnages, chambre-a-gaz, chambre-agaz, chambrea-gaz, chambreagaz, chambres-a-gaz, chambres-agaz, chambresa-gaz, chambresagaz, chemise-brune, chemise-brunes, chemise-noire, chemisebrune, chemisebrunes, chemisenoire, chemises-brune, chemises-brunes, chemises-noires, chemisesbrune, chemisesbrunes, chemisesnoires, collaboration, collaborations, combat, combats, courdassise, croix-gammee, croix-gammees, croixgammee, croixgammees, deportation, deportations, epuration-ethnique, epurationethnique, epurations-ethniques, epurationsethniques, espion, espionnage, espionnages, espionner, espions, ethnocide, ethnocides, etoile-jaune, etoile-jaunes, etoilejaune, etoilejaunes, etoiles-jaune, etoiles-jaunes, etoilesjaune, etoilesjaunes, eugenisme, eugenismes, explosif, explosifs, extermination, exterminations, fascisme, fascismes, fasciste, fascistes, fausse-monnaie, fausse-monnaies, faussemonnaie, faussemonnaies, fausses-monnaie, fausses-monnaies, faussesmonnaie, faussesmonnaies, faux, four-crematoire, four-crematoires, fourcrematoire, fourcrematoires, fours-crematoire, fours-crematoires, fourscrematoire, fourscrematoires, fuhrer, fuhrers, fusil, fusils, genocide, genocides, gestapo, guerre, guerre-civile, guerre-civiles, guerre-froide, guerre-froides, guerrecivile, guerreciviles, guerrefroide, guerrefroides, guerres, guerres-civile, guerres-civiles, guerres-froide, guerres-froides, guerrescivile, guerresciviles, guerresfroide, guerresfroides, hitler, hitlerien, hitleriens, hitlerisme, hitlerismes, hitlers, holocauste, holocaustes, insurrection, insurrections, kapo, kristallnacht, mafia, massacre, massacrer, massacres, mein-kampf, meinkampf, mercenaire, mercenaires, milice, milices, mussolini, nazi, nazis, nazisme, nazismes, neonazisme, neonazismes, pogrom, pogroms, profanation, profanations, profaner, purification, purifications, rebellion, rebellions, revisionnisme, revisionnismes, revolver, revolvers, sabotage, sabotages, saboteur, saboteurs, securite, securites, shoah, shoahs, svatiska, terreur, terreurs, terrorisme, terrorismes, terroriste, terroristes, trahison, trahisons, traitre, traitres, waffen-ss, waffenss, xenophobe, xenophobes, xenophobie
allah, association, associations, bible, bouddha, bouddhisme, bouddhismes, brahmanisme, brahmanismes, catholicisme, catholicismes, catholique, catholiques, charia, chretien, chretiens, christianisme, christianismes, confucianisme, confucianismes, coran, culte, cultes, culture, cultures, cure, cures, diable, diables, dieu, dieux, droit, droit-de-l-homme, droit-de-la-defense, droit-de-lhomme, droit-del-homme, droitde-l-homme, droitde-lhomme, droitdeladefense, droitdelhomme, droits, eglise, eglises, emploi, emplois, envoutement, envoutements, envouter, expression, expressions, greve, greves, hindouisme, hindouismes, hindouiste, hindouistes, imam, imams, islam, islamisme, islamismes, islamiste, islamistes, islams, jainisme, jainismes, judaisme, judaismes, juif, juifs, laicite, laicites, liberte, manicheisme, manicheismes, manifestation, manifestations, mazdeisme, mazdeismes, mosquee, mosquees, musulman, musulmans, oratoire, oratoires, pasteur, pasteurs, propriete, proprietes, protestant, protestantisme, protestantismes, protestants, rabbin, rabbins, religion, religions, sanctuaire, sanctuaires, sante, santes, satan, satanique, sataniques, satanisme, satans, secte, sectes, shintoisme, shintoismes, social, sociaux, solidarite, solidarites, sorcellerie, sorcelleries, sorcier, sorciers, surete, synagogue, synagogues, syndicalisme, syndicalismes, syndicat, syndicats, tantrisme, tantrismes, taoisme, taoismes, temple, temples, testament, testaments, travail, vaudou, vedisme, vedismes, youde
absinthe, absinthes, acid, acide, acides, acids, alcool, alcoolisme, alcoolismes, alcools, amphetamine, amphetamines, anabolisant, anabolisants, avortement, avortements, barrette, barrettes, came, canabis, cannabis, cellule, clone, cobaye, cobayes, cocaine, cocaines, coke, cokes, corps, crack, cracks, dealer, dealers, defonce, defoncer, defonces, dopage, dopages, dope, dopes, drogue, drogues, ecstasy, embryon, embryons, fecondation, fiv, fix, foetus, fumette, fumettes, gammette, gammettes, genetique, genetiques, genome, genomes, greffe, greffes, hachisch, hachischs, herbe, herbes, heroine, heroines, insemination, inseminations, ivg, ivresse, ivresses, joint, joints, junkie, junkies, lsd, marijuana, marijuanas, medicament, medicaments, mere-porteuse, mere-porteuses, mereporteuse, mereporteuses, meres-porteuse, meres-porteuses, meresporteuse, meresporteuses, morphine, morphines, narcotique, narcotiques, narcotrafiquant, narcotrafiquants, opium, organe, organes, overdose, overdoses, pharmacie, pharmacies, poppers, poudre, poudres, sang, schnouf, schnoufs, shit, shoot, shoots, stup, stupefiant, stupefiants, stups, tabac, tabacs, tabagisme, tabagismes, toxicomanie, toxicomanies, transplantation, transplantations
asean, bird, bit, casque-bleu, casque-bleus, casquebleu, casquebleus, casques-bleu, casques-bleus, casquesbleu, casquesbleus, ceca, cee, cij, cjce, cnuced, euratom, fao, gatt, gmi, kafor, kfor, nato, ocde, ofce, omi, omm, ompi, oms, ong, onu, opep, otan, oua, pnud, tpi, uit, uncitral, unesco, unidir, unrwa, wipo
apnic, arin, centr, iab, iana, icann, iesg, ietf, internic, registrar, registrars, registries, registry, ripe, w3, w3c
acap, afs, anycast, arpanet, arpanets, chap, courriel, courriels, courrier-electronique, courrierelectronique, courriers-electroniques, courrierselectroniques, darpa, data, dav, dhcp, dns, e-164, e-mail, e164, email, enum, epp, extranet, extranets, file, finger, ftp, gopher, html, http, icmp, ident, igmp, imap, in-addr, internet, internets, intranet, intranets, ip, ipng, ipsec, ipv4, ipv6, ldap, mail, mailserver, mailservers, mailto, mime, multicast, nfs, nntp, osi, pop, pop3, postmaster, postmasters, prospero, rfc, rtfm, rtsp, smtp, tcp, tcp-ip, tcpip, telnet, tftp, tip, tn3270, unicast, uri, url, vemmi, wais, webmaster, webmasters, whois, wml, www, x400, x42d, x500, xhtml, xml
abus-d-autorite, abus-dautorite, abus-de-confiance, abus-de-faiblesse, abus-deconfiance, abus-defaiblesse, abusd-autorite, abusdautorite, abusde-confiance, abusde-faiblesse, abusdeconfiance, abusdefaiblesse, agression, agressions, arnaque, arnaquer, arnaques, assassin, assassinat, assassinats, assassiner, assassins, attentat, attentats, banditisme, banditismes, bigamie, bigamies, bizutage, bizutages, blanchiment, blanchiments, blessure, blessures, boycott, boycottage, boycottages, boycotts, braconnage, braconnages, braconner, braquage, braquages, calomnie, calomnies, cambriolage, cambriolages, chantage, chantages, chouraver, clandestin, clandestins, complot, comploter, complots, concussion, concussions, conspiration, conspirations, contravention, contraventions, contrebande, contrebandes, contrefacon, contrefacons, corruption, corruptions, coup, coups, crime, crimes, criminel, criminels, debauche, debauches, delit, delits, destruction, destructions, detournement, detournements, diffamation, diffamations, effraction, effractions, emeute, emeutes, empoisonnement, empoisonnements, empoisonner, enlevement, enlevements, escroquerie, escroqueries, excision, excisions, execution, executions, exhibitionnisme, exhibitionnismes, extorquer, extorsion, extorsions, falsification, falsifications, faussaire, faussaires, fratricide, fratricides, fraude, frauder, fraudes, gangster, gansters, harcelement, harcelements, harceler, hold-up, holdup, homicide, homicides, incendiaire, incendiaires, incendie, incendies, inceste, incestes, infanticide, infanticides, infraction, infractions, injure, injures, intrusion, intrusions, kidnappeur, kidnappeurs, kidnapping, kidnappings, kill, killer, killers, killeur, killeurs, malfaiteur, malfaiteurs, malveillance, malveillances, malversation, malversations, manoeuvre, manoeuvres, matricide, matricides, meurtre, meurtres, meurtrier, meurtriers, offense, offenses, otage, otages, outrage, outrages, parricide, parricides, pedophile, pedophiles, pedophilie, pedophilies, pervers, pervertion, pervertions, pillage, pillages, piller, pilleur, pilleurs, piratage, piratages, pirate, pirater, piraterie, pirateries, pirates, poison, polygame, polygames, polygamie, polygamies, prostitution, prostitutions, provocation, provocations, proxenete, proxenetes, proxenetisme, proxenetismes, pyromane, pyromanes, racket, racketer, rackets, racoler, racoleur, racoleurs, rancon, ranconner, rancons, rapt, rapts, recel, receleur, receleurs, recels, recidive, recidives, regicide, regicides, scelerat, scelerats, sequestration, sequestrations, sequestrer, spoliation, spoliations, subornation, subornations, suicide, suicides, tentative, tentatives, trafic, trafic-d-influence, trafic-dinfluence, traficd-influence, traficdinfluence, trafics, trafiquant, trafiquants, tromperie, tromperies, tuer, tuerie, tueries, tueur, tueurs, usurpation, usurpations, viol, violation, violations, violence, violer, violeur, violeurs, viols, vol, voler, voleur, voleurs, vols, zoophilie
aeroport, aeroports, aoc, architecte, architectes, artisan, artisans, assedic, assedics, asso, assos, avocat, avocats, avoue, avoues, barreau, barreaux, chirurgien, chirurgien-dentiste, chirurgien-dentistes, chirurgiendentiste, chirurgiendentistes, chirurgiens, chirurgiens-dentiste, chirurgiens-dentistes, chirurgiensdentiste, chirurgiensdentistes, dentiste, dentistes, docteur, docteurs, expert-comptable, expert-comptables, expertcomptable, expertcomptables, experts-comptable, experts-comptables, expertscomptable, expertscomptables, generaliste, generalistes, geometre, geometre-expert, geometre-experts, geometreexpert, geometreexperts, geometres, geometres-expert, geometres-experts, geometresexpert, geometresexperts, huissier, huissier-de-justice, huissier-de-justices, huissier-justice, huissier-justices, huissierdejustice, huissierdejustices, huissierjustice, huissierjustices, huissiers, huissiers-de-justice, huissiers-de-justices, huissiers-justice, huissiers-justices, huissiersdejustice, huissiersdejustices, huissiersjustice, huissiersjustices, kinesitherapeute, kinesitherapeutes, kinesitherapie, kinesitherapies, maitre-artisan, maitreartisan, maitres-artisan, maitresartisans, masseur, masseur-kinesitherapeute, masseur-kinesitherapeutes, masseurs, masseurs-kinesitherapeute, masseurs-kinesitherapeutes, masseurskinesitherapeutes, medecin, medecins, noms, notaire, notaires, pedicure, pedicures, pharmacien, pharmaciens, podologue, podologues, port, ports, prd, presse, presses, sage-femme, sage-femmes, sagefemme, sagefemmes, sages-femme, sages-femmes, sagesfemme, sagesfemmes, veterinaire, veterinaires
academie, academies, administration, administrations, ambassade, ambassades, armee, armees, assemblee, assemblee-generale, assemblee-generales, assembleegenerale, assembleegenerales, assemblees, assemblees-generale, assemblees-generales, assembleesgenerale, assembleesgenerales, canton, cantonal, cantonale, cantonales, cantons, cent, centime, centimes, cents, citoyen, citoyenne, citoyennes, citoyennete, citoyennetes, citoyens, college, colleges, commune, communes, conseil-general, conseil-generaux, conseil-regional, conseil-regionaux, conseilgeneral, conseilgeneraux, conseilregional, conseilregionaux, conseils-general, conseils-generaux, conseils-regional, conseils-regionaux, conseilsgeneral, conseilsgeneraux, conseilsregional, conseilsregionaux, constitution, constitutions, cour-d-appel, cour-d-assise, courdappel, cstifrance, decret, decrets, democratie, democraties, departement, departements, depute, deputes, drapeau, drapeaux, ecole, ecoles, egalite, egalites, election, elections, elire, enfant, enfants, entente-cordiale, ententecordiale, ententes-cordiales, ententescordiales, etat, etats, euro, euros, fisc, fiscs, franc, france-allemagne, franceallemagne, francs, fraternite, fraternites, gendarme, gendarmerie, gendarmeries, gendarmes, gouvernance, gouvernances, gouvernement, gouvernements, hotel-de-ville, hotel-de-villes, hotel-deville, hotel-devilles, hotelde-ville, hotelde-villes, hoteldeville, hoteldevilles, hotels-de-ville, hotels-de-villes, hotels-deville, hotels-devilles, hotelsde-ville, hotelsde-villes, hotelsdeville, hotelsdevilles, impot, impots, juge, juges, jurisprudence, jurisprudences, justice, justices, loi, lois, lycee, lycees, magistrat, magistrats, maire, maires, mairie, mairies, marine-nationale, marinenationale, marseillaise, marseillaises, mineur, mineurs, ministere, ministeres, ministre, ministres, monnaie, monnaies, municipal, municipale, municipales, nation, nations, opinion-publique, opinion-publiques, opinionpublique, opinionpubliques, opinions-publique, opinions-publiques, opinionspublique, opinionspubliques, parlementaire, parlementaires, parlements, parti, partis, penal, police, polices, policier, policiers, politique, politiques, pompier, pompiers, prefecture, prefectures, prefet, prefets, premier-ministre, premier-ministres, premierministre, premierministres, premiers-ministre, premiers-ministres, premiersministre, premiersministres, president, president-de-la-republique, president-de-larepublique, president-dela-republiqe, president-dela-republique, president-delarepublique, presidentde-la-republique, presidentde-larepublique, presidentdela-republique, presidentdelarepublique, presidentiel, presidentielle, presidentielles, presidentiels, presidents, proces, putsch, putschs, region, regions, republique, republique-francaise, republiquefrancaise, republiques, sapeur-pompier, sapeur-pompiers, sapeurpompier, sapeurpompiers, sapeurs-pompier, sapeurs-pompiers, sapeurspompier, sapeurspompiers, senat, senateur, senateurs, sous-prefecture, sous-prefectures, sousprefecture, sousprefectures, souverainete, tribunal, tribunaux, tva, universite, universites, vote, voter, votes
agence, agences, cabinet, cabinets, comite-entreprise, comiteentreprise, comites-entreprises, comitesentreprises, confederation, confederations, cooperative, cooperatives, corporation, corporations, entreprise, entreprises, epa, epic, epst, etablissement, etablissements, eurl, federation, federations, filiale, filiales, fondation, fondations, gie, gip, groupe, groupes, holding, holdings, institut, instituts, pme, rcs, reunions, sarl, sas, sca, scea, sci, scp, scs, sep, siren, sirene, siret, snc, societe, societes, srl, ssii, ssiis, statut, statuts, succursale, succursales, union, unions
bordel, bordels, bourreau, bourreaux, cadavre, cadavres, colonisation, croix-celtique, croixceltique, croixceltiques, crouille, crouilles, discrimination, esclavage, esclavagisme, esclave, esclaves, macchabee, macchabees, maison-close, maison-closes, maisonclose, maisoncloses, maisons-close, maisons-closes, maisonsclose, maisonscloses, martyre, martyres, martyriser, mort, morts, mutilation, persecuter, persecution, persecutions, prisonnier, prisonniers, race, races, racisme, racismes, raciste, racistes, sadique, sadiques, sadisme, sadismes, sevice, sevices, supplice, supplices, tortionnaire, tortionnaires, torture, tortures, traite, traites, travesti, travestis
aero, arpa, biz, cctld, cctlds, com, coop, edu, firm, gov, gtld, gtlds, info, int, mil, museum, name, net, nom, org, pro, rec, store, tmk, web
MEMBERS - FFTI - CFE
© AFNIC 2004 - Contact us - Legal notice - Site map - Certificates
Propriétés du site
Le présent site est la propriété de l'Association Française pour le Nommage Internet en Coopération (AFNIC), association loi 1901, dont le siège est situé 2, rue Stephenson, Montigny le Bretonneux, 78181 Saint Quentin en Yvelines.
Le webmaster est Monsieur Alix GUILLARD.
Le site est hébergé par l'AFNIC sur ses matériels.
Droits et devoirs de l'utilisateur
L'utilisateur du présent site reconnaît disposer de la compétence des moyens nécessaires pour accéder à ce site, l'utiliser et avoir vérifié que la configuration informatique utilisée ne contient aucun virus et qu'elle est en parfait état de fonctionnement.
En conformité avec les dispositions de la loi du 6 janvier 1978 relative à l'Informatique, aux fichiers et aux libertés, le traitement automatisé de données nominatives réalisé à partir de ce site web a fait l'objet d'une déclaration auprès de la Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés (CNIL) qui en a délivré récépissé sous le numéro 667724.
L'utilisateur est notamment informé, conformément à cette loi que les informations qu'il communique par le biais des formulaires présents sur le site sont nécessaires pour répondre à sa demande, et sont destinées à l'AFNIC, responsable du traitement.
L'utilisateur est informé qu'il dispose d'un droit d'accès et de rectification portant sur les données le concernant auprès de l'AFNIC 2, rue Stephenson, 78181 Saint Quentin en Yvelines, ou par l'intermédiaire de notre formulaire contact.
L'utilisateur est informé que lors de ses visites sur le site un cookie peut s'installer automatiquement sur son logiciel de navigation.
Le cookie est un bloc de données qui ne permet pas de l'identifier mais qui sert à enregistrer des informations relatives à la navigation de celui-ci sur le site.
Le paramétrage du logiciel de navigation permet d'informer de la présence d'un cookie et notamment de la refuser, de la manière suivante :
si vous naviguez sur l'internet avec un navigateur " Internet Explorer 3 ou 4 (Microsoft) ", cliquez sur la barre de menu sur " Affichage ", puis sur " Options ", puis sur " Avancées ". Parmi les différents avertissements que vous pouvez activer le quatrième est intitulé " Avertir avant d'accepter les cookies " et, uniquement sur Internet Explorer 4, le cinquième est intitulé " Refuser toujours les cookies " ;
si vous naviguez sur l'internet avec le navigateur " Internet Explorer 5 (Microsoft) " ;: cliquez sur la barre de menu sur " Outils ", puis sur " Options internet ", puis sur " Sécurité ", puis sur " Personnalisez le niveau de sécurité " dans la rubrique " Cookies ", choisissez, " demandez " ou " désactivez " pour les deux options proposées ;
si vous naviguez sur l'internet avec le navigateur " Internet Explorer 6 (Microsoft) " : cliquez sur la barre de menu sur " Outils ", puis sur " Options internet ", puis sur " Confidentialité ", puis sur " Avancés " puis cochez la case " Ignorer la gestion automatique des cookies " et choisissez les options proposées ;
si vous naviguez sur l'internet avec le navigateur " Navigator Gold 3 (Netscape) " : cliquez sur la barre de menu sur " Options ", puis sur " Préférences de réseaux ", puis sur " Protocoles ". Parmi les différents avertissements que vous pouvez activer, le premier est intitulé " Avertir avant d'accepter un cookie ", vous serez alors averti(e) lors de l'arrivé d'un " cookie " et vous pourrez vous opposer à son enregistrement par votre logiciel de navigation ;
si vous naviguez sur l'internet avec le navigateur " Communicator 4 (Netscape) " : cliquez sur la barre de menu sur " Éditions ", puis sur " Préférences ", et mettez " Avancées " en surbrillance, puis choisissez l'option désirée ;
si vous naviguez sur l'internet avec le navigateur " Communicator 6 (Netscape) " ou " Mozilla " : cliquez sur la barre de menu sur " Éditions ", puis sur " Préférences ", puis sur " Confidentialité et sécurité ", puis choisissez l'option désirée.
Utilisation des données du site
Les utilisateurs du présent site sont tenus de respecter les dispositions de la loi relative à l'Informatique, aux fichiers et aux libertés, dont la violation est passible de sanctions pénales.
Ils doivent notamment s'abstenir, s'agissant des informations nominatives auxquelles ils accèdent, de toute collecte, de toute utilisation détournée, et d'une manière générale, de tout acte susceptible de porter atteinte à la vie privée ou à la réputation des personnes.
La structure générale, ainsi que les logiciels, textes, images animées ou non son savoir faire, et tous autres éléments composants le site sont la propriété exclusive de l'AFNIC.
Toute représentation totale ou partielle de ce site par quelque procédé que ce soit, sans l'autorisation expresse de l'AFNIC est interdite et constituerait une contrefaçon sanctionnée par les articles L.335-2 et suivants du Code de la propriété intellectuelle. Il en est de même des bases de données figurant sur le site web, qui sont protégées par les dispositions de la loi du 1er juillet 1998 portant transposition dans le Code de la propriété intellectuelle de la directive européenne du 11 mars 1996 relative à la protection juridique des bases de données, et dont l'AFNIC est producteur.
Les marques de l'AFNIC ainsi que les logos figurant sur le site sont des marques déposées ou sont la propriété de ses partenaires.
Toute reproduction totale ou partielle de ces marques ou de ces logos, effectuée à partir des éléments du site sans l'autorisation expresse de l'AFNIC est donc prohibée, au sens de l'article L.713-2 du Code de la propriété intellectuelle.
Alternative Dispute Resolutions (ADR) for .fr and .re domain names
The Alternative Dispute Resolutions are extrajudicial procedures provided for anyone who consider that a .fr or .re domain name registration made by a third party affects their rights.
Two alternative procedures for resolving disputes are implemented and are administered by two different bodies. It is to be noted that AFNIC remains neutral.
Aims of the implementation of these procedures are:
short period (within one and two months);
cheap costs (below 1500 Euros);
the possibility to submit the dispute to a court with jurisdiction.
1. Overall presentation
2. ADR for .fr and .re by on-line recommendation (CMAP)
3. ADR for .fr and .re by technical decision (WIPO centre)
4. Role of AFNIC
Document also available as a PDF file (35Ko)
1. Overall presentation
The .fr and .re naming Charters expressly remind you, in compliance with the terms of the French draft bill for electronic and audiovisual communication services, that it is the responsibility of the person registering the domain name or exploiting the domain name to verify that it does not breach the rights of third parties.
To do this, and in parallel with the traditional legal channel, two alternative procedures for resolving disputes are implemented within the zone files, .fr and .re, designated by the acronym, "ADR for .fr and .re".
When they request the registration of a domain name and subscribe to the naming Charter, the registrant of the domain name undertakes to comply with these procedures.
Each of these issues is administered by a different body and has separate regulations.
the ADR for .fr and .re by "on-line recommendation",
administered by the Centre de Médiation et d'Arbitrage de Paris (CMAP) [Centre for Mediation and Arbitration of Paris]
whose regulations can be accessed at
the ADR for .fr and .re by "technical decision",
administered by the Centre of Mediation and Arbitration of the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO),
whose regulations can be accessed at
2. ADR for .fr and .re by on-line recommendation (CMAP)
The ADR for .fr and .re by "on-line recommendation" enables the parties to a dispute relating to one or several domain names to entrust, by common agreement, the task of formulating a "recommendation" to a "dispute-resolution provider" designated by CMAP.
The "dispute-resolution provider" intervenes to facilitate the emergence of an out of court solution.
If the parties accept the recommendation, it is then used to draft a transaction protocol and to put an end to the dispute.
The solution chosen will then be implemented by AFNIC at the request of the service provider administering the domain name.
Having many things in common with mediation, this innovative solution is not restrictive, in the sense that the parties agree both to start the procedure and to apply the recommendation of the "dispute-resolution provider" or to base their decision on the suggestion of the latter.
The dispute-resolution provider may suggest solutions other than mere deletion or transfer of the domain name and may make it possible to serve the entire dispute, dealing, in particular, with the problem of compensation.
This extremely rapid and easy procedure (it takes about 16 days) is especially suitable in the event of disputes about legitimacy, as, for example, litigation between franchisers and franchisees or, in merger, acquisition, partial capital operations etc., that is all conflictual situations that are not necessarily cases of bad faith registrations of domain names (cybersquatting), which does not exclude this procedure also being used in the situation.
Recommandations of CMAP are not published and remain confidential (contrary to WIPO UDRP domain name decisions).
3. ADR for .fr and .re by technical decision (WIPO Centre)
The ADR for .fr and .re by "technical decision", administered by the WIPO Centre is a UDRP (Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy) adapted to the .fr and .re zones.
This is a binding procedure, which the owner of the domain name cannot evade.
It is, however, possible to submit the dispute to a court with jurisdiction at any time.
Under this procedure, the expert designated by the WIPO Centre will have to decide whether to reject the complaint or to transmit the name of the complainant or to remove them.
This decision is sent to AFNIC, which implements it after a period of 20 days, during which the owner may file a complaint with the French Courts to contest the decision. In that case, the application of the administrative decision then depends on the decision of the Courts.
This type of procedure, which has been used since 1999, both for gTLD (generic Top Level Domains) and in the case of some ccTLD (country-code Top Level Domains), has proved its efficacy, in particular, in combating the fraudulent registration of domain names. It will be seen, however, that the field of application of the UDRP procedure is limited to breaches of brand law.
On the other hand, ADR for .fr and .re " by "administrative decision" applies to breaches of third party rights protected in France and, in particular, to intellectual property (literary and artistic property and/or industrial property), to the regulations on competition and fair trading and to the right to the name, first name or pseudonym of an individual.
While it is possible to implement a ADR for .fr and .re " by technical decision" after a recommendation has been made within the framework of a "ADR by on-line recommendation", the reverse is not possible because of the binding nature of the "technical decision".
WIPO makes public its UDRP domain name decisions (including the cases related to .fr or .re domain names).
4. Role of AFNIC
Each of the ADR for .fr and .re is administered on a case-by-case basis, either by the CMAP, or by the WIPO Centre, without the intervention of AFNIC, which remains strictly neutral in its capacity as registry.
The role of AFNIC is restricted to:
informing the CMAP dispute-resolution provider or the WIPO expert of the information in their possession on the owner of the domain name and their domain name assets (number and time);
freezing operations on the domain name or domain names that is the subject of a ADR;
applying either the decision arrived at by agreement between the parties as a result of an "on-line recommendation" or of the "technical decision" made by the WIPO expert.
Under the terms of the naming Charter, ADR for .fr and .re does not apply to disputes that are the responsibility of AFNIC or to that of service providers, which, where possible, are brought before the courts with jurisdiction.